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Operating Techniques For The Tractor-Loader-Backhoe

Now Celebrating 26 Years In Print!

Operating Techniques For The Tractor-Loader-Backhoe

Official training text of the International Union of Operating Engineers since 1996

Industry standard for TLB training since 1983

Now over 300 photos and illustrations for easy comprehension

Specific new information on the One Call system and its limitations

Expanded utility chapter includes operator guide to avoiding utility damage

Detailed examination of the "physics of operation" covering never before published information

Question and answer examination for each chapter

Used by dozens of Training programs throughout North America

 

Written by a professional operator, Operating Techniques For The Tractor-Loader-Backhoe explains in easy-to-understand terms how to get the maximum productivity from this highly versatile machine.

The book explains how experienced, veteran operators plan the job before work begins, cutting wasted movement to a minimum. You will learn how to work safely in tight job situations and tackle the really difficult jobs safely and effectively. The revised edition now covers use of the One Call System to prevent costly utility damage.

The book is written in an easy to understand manner and includes over 300 photographs and illustrations, making it easy for the reader to understand the information.

Since 1983, Operating Techniques For The Tractor-Loader-Backhoe has been the standard training source for vocational training schools, utility companies and public works throughout North America.

8-½" x 11" -  270 Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $38.00

PDF Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $300.00


 

View Table of Contents

View Index

 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

TLB Dimensions     1                 Top of Page

 

General  1

Weight Distribution  2

Bulldozer 3

Skiploader 3

TLB 3

Universal Forces and Principles  4

Weight 5

Motion 5

Work Motion Cycle    5

Momentum  6

Pitch of Slope  7

General Slope Information  8

Percent 8

Ratio    8

Degrees 9

Ratio    9

Percent 9

Downhill Force - Force Down the Plane  10

Traction   11

Friction  12

Center of Gravity   13

Important Factors Relating to Center of Gravity 18

Weight of Materials and COG    20

Effect of Slopes on COG  21

Altering Dimensions  21

Truck Loading  23

Attachments  24

COG Wrapup  25

Summary  25

Questions - Chapter 1  TLB Dimensions  26

Chapter 2

Machine Control           33             Top of Page

 

Mental requirements  33

Physical Requirements  33

Machine Controls  34

Machine Response  35

Dimensions  35

Mechanical Response  35

Older Machines  36

Loader Control 37

Brakes   37

Danger Areas  37

On the Job  39

Loader Summary  39

Hydralic Control 40

Backhoe Control 40

Backhoe Controls - 4-lever system 40

Backhoe Controls - 3-lever system with foot swing  41

Backhoe Controls - 2-lever system with "JD" pattern  42

Backhoe Controls - 2-lever system, excavator 43

Practice Exercises  46

Questions - Chapter 2 Machine Control  48

Chapter 3

Safety 53             Top of Page

 

#1 Accident  53

Safe Clothing  53

Seat Belt  54

Keep Your Machine Clean  54

Safety Systems  54

Lock-out Safety Devices  55

Parking Safety  55

Worker Safety  55

General TLB Safety   56

Backhoe Accidents  58

TLB Accidents  58

Rollover  59

Excavations  60

Excavation Safety   61

Shoring  62

Sloping  62

Spoil Quantities - Shoring vs. Sloping 63

Transporting Wheeled Machinery  65

Conclusions  66

Questions - Chapter 3 Safety   68

Chapter 4

Maintenance 73             Top of Page

 

Operation and Maintenance Manual  73

Machine Components & Systems  74

Engine  74

Oil        75

Air        75

Fuel      76

Pre-Cleaner 76

Primary Filter 76

Secondary Filter 76

Greasing   77

Warm-Up and Cooldown  79

Machine Life  79

Bucket Changing Tips  80

Questions - Chapter 4 Maintenance  84

Chapter 5

Utilities 89             Top of Page

 

One Call System   90

The Limitations of the One Call System   92

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly     92

How to Proceed with the Job  93

The "Four Stages of Alert"  94

Keys to Pipe Detection  94

Variables That Determine Pipe Breakage  95

Investigating Possible Utility Lines    96

Working Range of the TLB When Locating Utilities 96

Digging Around Utilities  97

Questions - Chapter 5 Utilities  101

Chapter 6

Planning the Job       107             Top of Page

 

Placement of Spoil     108

Layout 108

Precision Job Layout 109

Job-Planning Tips      109

Questions - Chapter 6 Planning the Job       110

Chapter 7

Set-up 113             Top of Page

 

Tripod Setup 115

The Pivot Method  116

Precision Set-up  117

Set-Up Techniques  120

Conclusion  122

Questions - Chapter 7 Set-up        123

Chapter 8

Footings 127             Top of Page

 

Precision, Skill, Concentration  127

Footing Types  127

Layout 128

Precision Digging  129

Elevation Importance and Checking Methods  129

Laborer Involvement  132

Checking the Grade   133

Questions - Chapter 8 Footings  139

Chapter 9

Job Site Cleanliness             Top of Page

 

and Cleanup 143

Shuttle Operations  144

Spoil Removal  144

Importance of Excavation Cleanliness  145

Cleanup  145

Questions - Chapter 9 Cleanliness and Cleanup  153

 Chapter 10

Grading and Compaction 157             Top of Page

 

Required Skills  157

Grading Techniques  157

Loader Grading Techniques  157

Cutting 159

Filling   160

Fine Cutting Techniques for Hard Ground 161

Finish Grading  163

Backhoe Grading Techniques  168

Compaction  171

Wheel Rolling  172

Jetting 173

Compaction Attachments  175

Questions - Chapter 10 Grading and Compaction  177

Chapter 11

Backhoe Techniques 181             Top of Page

 

Purpose of the Excavation  181

General Trenching Procedure 182

Extendable Dipperstick Procedure.   184

Soft Ground Conditions  186

Hard Ground Conditions  186

Stabilizer Usage and Technique  187

Digging Near a Wall or Fence  188

Digging Against A Wall  191

Specialized Job Tasks   192

Tunneling  192

Potholing  194

Cribbing  196

Cribbing Technique - Railroad Applications 196

Loading Trucks with the Backhoe  197

Material Handling  200

Handling Long Material 200

Land Clearing Procedures  202

Clearing Techniques  202

Stump Removal  204

How to Dig an Arc       205

Tooth Grab Method  207

Crossing Trenches 212

Connecting Trenches  214

Questions - Chapter 11 Backhoe Techniques  215

Chapter 12

Loader Techniques  221             Top of Page

 

Principles of Operation  221

Stability  224

Filling the Bucket 225

Soft Material  227

Hard Material  230

Loading Trucks  230

Stockpiling  233

Ramp Stockpile  233

Related Techniques  235

Shuttle Operations  238

Safety   242

Related Techniques  242

Questions - Chapter 12 Loader Techniques  247

Chapter 13

Demolition 251            Top of Page

 

Preparation and Planning  252

Efficiency of Job Completion  252

Stockpiling  252

Material Separation  253

Backhoe Techniques  253

Prying Method 254

Concrete Breaking  255

Roll-Out Method 255

Breaking Technique 256

Positioning Pieces for Breaking 256

Loading Techniques  257

Loading with the Backhoe  257

Picking Up the Pieces 258

Natural Back-up 259

Positioning the Bucket  261

No Back-up Technique 263

Lifting and Swinging  264

Loading with the Loader  266

Questions - Chapter 13 Demolition  271

Appendices                                              Top of Page

 

Appendix A - Natural Gas Dangers  275

Appendix B - Glossary  277

Appendix C - Index    280

Appendix D - Answer Key  285

ETR Product Guide   297

ETR Order Form    298

 

Index: Operating Techniques for the Tractor-Loader-Backhoe

A                                                                    Top of Page

Accident statistics 58-61

Accidents

  backhoe 58

  excavation 60-61

  loader 58-59

  rollover 59-60

Aging TLB 36-37

Air intake system, maintenance 75

Air removal, soil compaction 171

Airborne contamination, engine 76

Airports, locating utilities 92

Alignment, precision digging 117-118

Altering dimensions 21, 224

Angle

  of bucket edge 158

  of grade 159

Arc, digging 205-206

Arc of swing

  digging near wall 191

  set-up 117

  spoil placement 113-114

Area, choosing

  stockpiling 252

  truck loading 230

Attachments

  affects on COG 24

  compaction 175

B                                                                    Top of Page

Back-dragging

  clean-up 147

  demolition 267

  fine grading 166-168

  ramp building 233

  shuttle operations 144, 239

Backfilling

  circular grading pattern 243

  compaction 163, 172-175

  depth of fill 162

  dispersal of material 160, 162-163

  grading 157, 160

  spoil placement 108

Backhoe

  accidents 58

  as counterweight 2-3

  controls 34, 40-46

  digging arcs 205-206

  dimensions 2

  swing pin placement 192

  weight distribution 2-3

Backhoe techniques 181

  clearing land 202-205

  concrete breaking 255-257

  connecting trenches 214

  demolition 253-270

  digging near wall 188-191

  grading 168-171

  handling long material 200-201

  loading trucks 197-199

  loading, demolition 257

  positioning the bucket 259-260

  positioning the piece 259-261

  questions 215-220

  stabilizer usage 187

  swinging the hoe 168, 170-171

Back-up

  importance of 257

  in demolition 257

  loading against 147, 151-152, 225-26

  natural 259

  no back-up 263

  stabilizers as 263

Base of machine 14-15

  vertical line 16

  zones 15

Bearings 74

Boom 2

Brake adjustment test 38

Brake response 35

Brakes 74

  as control mechanism 37

  danger areas 37-38

  increasing stability with 39

  locked or unlocked 38

Braking

  poor 36

  skills 39

Braking system, independent 37

Breaking concrete 255-257

Breakout force, loader 221

Breaks, gas line 100

Broken utility pipe 97-100

Brush, clearing 202

Bucket

  adjustment 259-260

  changing 80-82

  contact with utilities 95

  greasing joints 78

  movement in obstacle detection 94-95

  requirements of job 107

Bucket, backhoe

  changing tips 80-81

  cribbing, size 196

  heavy duty 254

  natural position 80

  pins 80

teeth, changing 82

truck loading, size 197

Bucket, loader

  corners, contact 226

  filling completely 225

  level 159

  weight 2

Builder's level, using 129, 132

Bulldozer, center of gravity 3

C                                                                    Top of Page

Canopy, safety 57

Caution zone, TLB base 15

Cave-ins

  advance warning 62

  excavation 60-61

Center of gravity (COG) 13-25

  affects of loads 20, 23

  affects of slopes 21

  contact surfaces 17

  defined 13

  location and movement 14

  machines 2-4

  material 200

  movement of 19

TLB attachments 24

  vertical line 16

  weight transfer 16

  zones of safety 15

  positions illustrated 18

Centerline of hoe, set up 113

Chain set-ups, craning 192-193

Changing buckets 79-80

Chapter questions

1 26-31

2 48-52

3 68-71

4 84-87

5 101-105

6 110-112

7 123-125

8 139-141

9 153-155

10 177-179

11 215-220

12 247-250

13 271-274

Checking elevation 129, 131-132

Chocks for loading 66

Circular grading patterns 243-245

Clean job site, importance of 143-144

Cleaning trench 182

Cleanliness, job site

  for safety 184

  grading 157

Cleanliness, machine 54

Cleanup, demolition site 269-270

Cleanup methods

  back-dragging 144

  dirt surfaces 147

  paved surfaces 147, 148-150

  pile clean-up 147

  sod or lawn surfaces 147

Cleanup tips 149

Clearing area for layout 131

Clearing land, backhoe 202-205

Clearing/cleaning stockpiles 145

Clothing, safe 53

Cold weather starts 79

Color codes, utility markings 90-91

Common sense, using 57, 67

Common slope measurements 8-9

Compaction

  attachments 175

  excess air and water removal 171

  jetting 172-174

  optimum water content 172

  principles of 171

  soil types 171

  wheel rolling 172-175

Components, weights of 2

Compression, soil 171-172

Concentration, digging 95

Concrete removal

  backhoe, loading with 257

  breakout force 254

  bucket, heavy duty 254

  dropping 255

  positioning pieces for breaking 256

  prying method 254

  roll-out method 255

  size of pieces 252, 266

  striking 255-256

  thickness limitations 257

Conduit, kinks in 206-207

Connecting trenches 214

Constant forces 4-5

Contact surfaces and center of gravity 17

Contamination, engine 75

Control

  defined 33

  grading 158

  material handling 200

TLB 4

Controlled digging, pipe detection 95

Controlling engine RPM 41

Controlling the load, demolition 264

Controls

  hydraulic 40

TLB 34

Cool-down, engine 79

Cooling system 74, 76

Coordinating trades 108

Cracks, checking for 77

Craning 192-193

Cribbing 196-197

Crossing trenches 116-118, 212-214

Crowd 2

Cut slopes 9

Cut, surface 182

Cutting

  angle of bucket 186-187

  angle of grade 159

  grading 157-158

  starting the cut 159-160

D                                                                    Top of Page

Daily maintenance 76

Damage to utilities, responsibility 91

Damage, preventing 255, 257

Danger zone, TLB base 15

Degree of slope 7

Demolition 251-270

  backhoe techniques 253-270

  concrete 253-263

  efficiency 252

  loading techniques 258-270

  material separation 253

  one-step method 252

  questions 271-274

  site cleanup 269-270

  specialized operation 251

  stockpiling 252-253

Department of Industrial Relations (CA), accident statistics 58-61

Depth of fill 162

Depth of trench

  utility lines 184

  measuring 132

Diesel engine requirements 79

Differential 74

Digging

  against banks 192

  arcs 205-206

  around utilities 90, 96-100

  controlled 95

  motion, learning 46

  near a wall 188-191

  planning sequence 108

  set-up 190

  swing 190

  trench-type footings 135-137

  with offset hoe 190

Dimensions

  altering 224

  definition 1

  know for loading 66

  machine response 35

TLB 1-6

Dipperstick, extendable 184-186, 195

Dipping water 47

Direction of fall, tree clearing 203-204

Dirt surfaces, clean-up 147

Dirty fuel 76

Disaster zone, TLB base 15

Dispersing fill material 160, 162-163

Downhill force, defined 10

Drainage slope 8

Dressing slopes 65

Drift pin 80

Driveway grading 168, 170

Driving forces, in traction 222

E                                                                    Top of Page

Ear protection 54

Earth movement, detecting underground utilities 95

Earthmoving 181

Electro-hydraulic controls 43

Elements of stability 13

Elevation, precision digging 129

Engine

  contamination 75

  maintenance 74-79

  response 35

  speed, controlling 41-42

  warm-up/cool-down 79

Equipment inspection 54

Excavation 181

  cleanup 145

  compaction 175

  footings, pier 128

  hazards 60-61

  planning 184

  precision 117-119

  safety 61-62

  using hand tools 91

Excavations, locating previous 95

Exercises, backhoe practice 46

Exit route, planning for 127

Extendable dipperstick 184-186

F                                                                    Top of Page

Factors affecting center of gravity 13

Farms, locating utilities 92

Fatalities, TLB 57

Feathering 43, 46

50 percent slope 9

Fill material, dispersing 160, 162-163

Filling

  circular grading pattern 243

  compaction 163

  depth of fill 162

  dispersal of material 160, 162-163

  grading 157, 160-163

  spoil placement 108

Filters, changing 75

Fine cutting techniques 160

Fine grading, trench bottom 182

Finish grading

  back-dragging 166-168

  backhoe 168-171

  technique 164-165, 169

Fittings, greasing 78

Float position, bucket 159, 164, 168

Floating the bucket 46

  locating utilities 95

Flow control valves 42

Fluid levels, checking 77

Footings 127

  digging 117

  pier, set-ups for 120-122

  precision digging 130

  questions 139-141

  trench-type 135-137

  undermining 62, 190

Force

  downhill 10

  momentum 6

Force down the plane 10

Forces

  machine made 5-6

  man made 6

  natural 5

  universal 4

Four stages of alert 94

Four-lever control system, backhoe 40, 46

Four-wheel drive TLB 36

Friction

  defined 12

  overcoming 12

Front loader bucket, tripod set-up 113

Front wheel traction, reduced 39

Front wheels off ground 39

Front-end light situations 39

Fuel-injection system, maintaining 76

G                                                                    Top of Page

Gas line, breaks in 100

Geometry, TLB 186-187

Glasses, safety 57

Grade 7

  checking 132-133

Grade checker, hand signals 133

Gradient 7

  slope measurements 8

Grading 157-170

  backhoe 168-171

  cut and fill 157

  cutting 159-160

  filling 160-163

  finish 158, 169

  on slopes 157

  rough 157-158

  skills 157

  techniques 157

  trench bottom 182

Grading and compaction, questions 177-179

Gravity flow trench 184

Grease cartridges, changing 78

Greasing TLB

  changing cartridges 78

  intervals 77

  tips 79

Grooming

  bucket 240

  pile 147, 151-152

Gross weight, TLB 2

Ground conditions

  affect on traction 222

  hard 186-187

  risk of cave-ins 61

  soft 186

H                                                                    Top of Page

Hammering bucket 80

Hand-dig zone 91

Hand labor

  around utilities 96-97

  cleaning trench 132-134

Hand signals, grade checker 133

Hand throttle, setting 41

Hard hats 57

Hard material

  loader techniques 230

  loosening with backhoe 200

Hard soil, cutting 160-161

Heavy-duty bucket 254

Heavy equipment, physics of 4-25

Height, TLB 2

Hinge pin 80

Hoe assembly 2

Hoe-ram

  compaction 175

  demolition 253

Hoses and fittings, maintenance 76

Hydraulic controls 35, 40

Hydraulic forces, in traction 222

Hydraulic power 6

Hydraulic response 35

Hydraulic system 74

  changes in 79

  checking fluids in 77, 79

  damage 257

  warming up 79

Hydraulics

  basic principle 40

  power 40

  valves 40

  worn mechanisms 37

Hydro-hammer 253, 257

I                                                                    Top of Page

Industrial parks, locating utilities 92

Injuries

  caused by TLB 57

  operator 56

Input shafts 74

Inspecting equipment 54

Inspection, daily 77

J                                                                    Top of Page

Jack hammer 253, 257

Jetting 172-174

Job planning 107-109

  tips 109

Job site cleanliness 143-144

Job site cleanliness and cleanup, questions 153-155

Joints, greasing 78

Jump-starting machines, dangers 55

L                                                                    Top of Page

Labor, hand 132-134

  around utilities 96-97

Land clearing, backhoe 202-205

Large material, loading 268

Lawn surfaces, clean-up 147

Layout

  clearing area 131

  excavation 107-109

  importance of 128-129

Layout lines 129

Leaks, checking for 77

Legal requirements, One Call System 91

Length, TLB 2

Level 8

  final grade 184

Leveling the site 158

Lift forces, loader 221

Lifting and swinging, backhoe 264-265

Lifting with no back-up 263

Lifts 171

Linkage pin 80

Load height, affect on stability 224-225

Load stabilization 39

Load weight, in traction 222

Loader

  accidents 58-59

  driving torque 223

  lift 223

  principles of operation 221-222

  traction 221-222

  weight 224

Loader arm service lock 54

Loader assembly, weight 2

Loader controls 34, 37

Loader technique 221-246

  back-ups 225-226

  corners of bucket 226

  demolition 266-268

  grading patterns 243

  hard material 230

  loading trucks 231

  questions 247-250

  shuttle operations 238-240

  soft material 227-229

  stockpiling 233

Loading and transporting TLB 65

Loading, preventing damage 231

Loading trucks 23

  avoiding damage 199

  backhoe techniques 197-199

  demolition 258-270

  loader techniques 226, 231

  patterns 232

  pit style 197-198

  selecting area 230

  weight distribution 231

  while digging 197-198

  wind considerations 230

Loads, affect on center of gravity 20, 23

Location/movement of center of gravity 14

Locked brakes, dangers 37

Lockout safety devices 55

Long material, handling 200-201

Lubricants 74

M                                                                    Top of Page

Machine

component maintenance 74

mastering total usage 221

  preventing abuse 255, 257

Machine control

  questions 48-52

  mastering 33

Machine life, prolonging 79-80

Machine made forces 5

Machine response 35

  poor 36

Machine set-up 113

  digging near wall 190

  footings 120-122

Machine specifications, operator's manual 73

Machine systems, maintenance 74

Maintenance, TLB

  daily 76

  fluid levels 77

  greasing 77-79

importance of operator's manual 73

intervals 73

  machine components/systems 74

  poor 36-37

  results of poor habits 82-83

  schedules 74

Maneuverability, increasing 39

Maneuvering, controlled 39-40

Manual, operation and maintenance 73

Manuals, operator 34

Manufacturers' specifications 66

Manufacturing plants, locating utilities 92

Marking

  excavation 90, 108

  utilities 90-91

Markings, layout 129

Material handling, backhoe 200-201, 207

Material separation, demolition 253

Measurements, slope 8-9

Mechanical response 35

Mental requirements, operator 33

Mobile home parks, locating utilities 92

Momentum

  controlling 7

  defined 6

Motion

  defined 5

  work cycle 6

Movement of center of gravity 19

Movement, unwanted 36

Moving earth 181

N                                                                    Top of Page

Natural back-ups 259

Natural physical forces 5

Notification requirements, One Call System 90

O                                                                    Top of Page

Obstacles

  detection 95

  maneuvering around 46

  tilting machine to avoid 188, 190

Offset hoe 190

Oil fill plug, maintaining 75

Oil service 75

Older machines 36-37

One Call Notification Center 90

One Call System 90

  limitations 92

  required users 91-92

One percent slope 8

One-step method, demolition 252

100 percent slope 9

133 percent slope 9

Open area smoothness 46

Opening hydraulic valves 42-43

Operation and Maintenance manual 73

  importance of 34

  maintenance schedules in 73

Operational controls/procedures 73

Operator control, tripod set-up 113

Operator fatigue 143-144

Operator skills 33

  grading 157

  locating utilities 93

TLB 1

Operator's responsibility 25

  cave-in warning 62

  damage control 46

  grading 158

  lifting and swinging 264

  material handling 200

  safety 56-57, 184

Optimum water content, compaction 172

OSHA regulations 61

Outer casing 74

Output shafts 74

Outriggers 187

Overstressing older machines 37

P                                                                    Top of Page

Parking safety, TLB 55

Pavement breaker, pneumatic 253, 257

Pavement, clean-up 147, 148-150

Percent, slope 8

Permits for transporting 66

Physical forces, natural 5

Physical requirements, operator 33

Physics of weight/motion 5

Physics of heavy equipment 4-25

Pier footings

  precision digging 120-122

  requirements 128

Pile clean-up 147

Pin removal procedure 81

Pins, bucket 80

Pipe

  breakage variables 95

  keys to detection 94-95

  monitoring positions 96

  reporting damage 100

Pit style loading 197-198

Pitch of slope

  defined 7

  illustrated 9

Pivot method

  footings 128

  set-up 116-118

Pivot procedure 116

Placement of spoil

  avoiding cave-ins 61

planning 107-108

trench sloping 65

Planning the job

  demolition 252

  excavations 181

  questions 110-112

  tips 109

Poor maintenance habits 82-83

Position of center of gravity 18

Positioning of weight 2, 5

Potholing 194-195

Power with extendable dipperstick 185

Practice exercises, backhoe 46

Precise excavation 184

Precision

  control 46-47

  digging, footings 130

  layout 108-109

  set-up 117-119

Pre-cleaner 75

Pre-operation procedures 77

Preparing work area 145-146

Primary filter 75

Principles, universal 4

Private property, locating utilities 92-93

Procedures, pre-operation 77

Protective guards/panels, machine 54

Public property, locating utilities 92-93

Pulling force, maximum 186

Push-pull method, clearing 203, 205

Q                                                                    Top of Page

Questions

Chapter 1 26-31

Chapter 2 48-51

Chapter 3 68-71

Chapter 4 84-87

Chapter 5 101-105

Chapter 6 110-112

Chapter 7 123-125

Chapter 8 139-141

Chapter 9 153-155

Chapter 10 177-179

Chapter 11 215-220

Chapter 12 247-250

Chapter 13 271-274

R                                                                    Top of Page

Radar, shuttle operations 240-241

Railroad applications, cribbing 196

Ramp

  loading 66

  stockpile 233

Ramp building technique 234

Ratio, slope 8

Reach, extendable dipperstick 184

Reference markers 109

Reinforcing steel, in concrete 163

Requirements, TLB operator 33

Response, machine 35

Responsibility of operator

  cave-in warning 62

  damage control 46

  grading 158

  lifting and swinging 264

  material handling 200

  safety 57, 184

Restrictions to movement 46

Reverse, travel 242

Road grading 242-243

Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) 54, 57

Rollover accidents 13, 59-60

RPM

  controlling 41

  normal operation 42

  Rural land, utilities on 92

S                                                                    Top of Page

Safe zone, TLB base 15

Safety

  backhoe 58

  clean job site 143-144

  daily maintenance of TLB 76

  gas line breaks 100

  general 53-57

  measures 184

  operator's manual 73

  pitch of slope 7

  questions 68-71

TLB 4-5

  traveling in reverse 242

  tripod set-up 113, 115

  understanding center of gravity 13

Safety guidelines

  mount and dismount 53

  operator 56

TLB operation 56-57

Safety systems, TLB 54

Sanding a trench 246

Schedules, maintenance 73-74

Scope of work, determining 107

Scraping 160

Sealed components 74

Seat belts 54

Secondary filter 75

Service

  air intake system 74-75

  oil 75

Service lock, loader arm 54

Set-up

  digging near wall 190

  footings 120-122

  moving to next 183

  pivot method 116-118

  precision 117-119

  questions 123-125

  sample techniques 120-121

TLB 113-122

  tripod 113, 187

  truck loading 199

75 percent slope 9

Sewer line installations 195

Sheet flow drainage, slope 8

Shoes, safety 57

Shoring

  conditions affecting 62

  requirements 61

Shutoff valves, locating 100

Shuttle operations 144

Shuttle operations, loader

  bucket volume 240

  direction of travel 241

  efficiency 239

  length of travel 239

  obstacles 240-241

  radar 240-241

  route 239

  safety 242

  using corners 241

Side-shift hoe 190

Site hazards 57

Skills, operator 1, 33

Skiploader, center of gravity 3

Slope

  affects on center of gravity 21

  measuring 7-9

  negative 188

  pitch 7

Slopes

  grading 157

  ramp 233

  stability 224-225

Sloping, trench

  inadequate 60-61

  procedures 65

  ratio 62

  safety 184

  spoil quantities 63-65

Smooth grade, working on 144

Smooth operation, importance of 40, 42-45

Smoothing slopes 65, 184

Smoothness

  exercises for 46-47

  open area 46

Sod surfaces, clean-up 147

Soft material, loader techniques 227-229

Soft soil, cutting 160

Soil conditions

  contributing to accidents 60

  detecting underground utilities 95

  ease of work 46

  grading 160, 166

  hazardous 61

  shoring requirements 62

  truck loading 197

Soil types, compaction 171

Soils engineer, working with 171

Spoil piles, clearing/cleaning 145

Spoil placement

  avoiding cave-ins 61

  footings 128

  grading 161

  planning 107-108, 181

  stockpiling 144, 160

  trench sloping 65

Spoil quantities, sloping 63-65

Spoil removal 144

  trench 182

Spoil transport, using the trench 210-211

Stability

  affects of weight transfer 16-18

  extendable dipperstick 185

  importance of 13

  load height 224-225

  slope 224-225

  tripod set-up 113, 115

Stabilizers

  using 187

  width 2, 188

Stabilizing TLB 21-22

Stacking method, loading concrete 262

Stages of alert 94

Start-up lockout devices 55

Steering response 36

Stick 2

Stockpiles, clearing/cleaning 145

Stockpiling concrete 252, 266-267

Stockpiling dirt

  access 233

  back-ups 233, 225-226

  condensing 235-238

  moving 235-238

  procedure 233

  ramp 233

  spoil 144, 158

Stockpiling spoil, setting up for 113

Stomper 253, 257

Story pole 132

Striking, concrete breaking 255-256

Stump removal, backhoe 204-205

Surface cut 182

Swing drift, TLB 36

Swing pin, placement 192

Swinging the backhoe 168, 170-171

Systems maintenance 74

T                                                                    Top of Page

Teeth, bucket 82

Ten percent gradient slope 9

Testing a load 265

Testing, soil density 171

Thickness limitations, concrete breaking 257

Three-lever control system, backhoe 41

Tie-downs for transporting 66

Tight situations, operating in 39, 46

Tilting the machine 188, 190

Tire pressure 77

  traction 222

TLB dimensions, questions 26-31

TLB maintenance, questions 84-87

Tolerance zone, utilities 91

Tooth grab method

  backhoe techniques 207-209

  clearing land 202

Topsoil, wet 147

Torque 5-6

  driving 223

Traction

  defined 11

  factors affecting 222

  increasing 39

  loss of 39

  needed for 12

Tractor-loader backhoe (TLB)

  attachments and center of gravity 24

  base of machine 14-15

  center of gravity 3

  characteristics of older models 36

  compacting soil 172-176

  components 2

  cutting techniques 159-160

  dimensions 2-6

  downhill forces 11

  maintenance 73-83

  mastering machine control 33

  operator responsibility 25

  operator skills 1, 33

  parking safety 55

  pre-operation procedures 77

  prolonging machine life 79-80

  safety systems 54

  safety tips 56-57

  sample set-up techniques 120-121

  set-up 113-122

  stability 13, 16-17

  uses 1

  variations in design 36

  weight distribution 2-5

  working weight 4, 5

Tractor, weight 2

Trades, coordinating with 108

Transmission 74

  response 35

Transporting TLB 65

Traveling in reverse 242

Tree clearing

  backhoe 202-205

  direction of fall 203-204

  larger trees 203-204

  push-pull method 203, 205

  saplings 202

  swing 200

  wind 203

Trench

  compacting 175

  connecting 214

  crossing 212-214

  digging in stages 210-211

  moving set-up 183

  sanding 246

  shoring requirements 62

  signs of utilities 95

  spoil removal 182

  used for spoil transport 210-211

Trench sloping, illustrated 64

Trench-type footings 120-122, 127, 135-137

Trenching procedure 182-183

  extendable dipperstick 185

Tripod set-up

  advantages 113

  backhoe 187

  problems 115

Trough, grading 160

Truck damage, avoiding 199, 231

Truck loading 23

  avoiding damage 199, 231

  backhoe techniques 197-199

  demolition 258-270

  loader techniques 226-229, 231

  patterns 232

  pit style 197-197

  preventing damage 231

  selecting area 230

  weight distribution 231

  while digging 197-199

  wind considerations 230

Tunneling 192-194

20 percent gradient slope 9

Two-lever control system, backhoe 42-43, 46

Two percent slope 8

Two-pin bucket attachment 80

Two-wheel drive TLB 36

U                                                                    Top of Page

Underground utility lines 89-90

  broken 97-100

  detecting 95

  digging around 96-100

  problems locating 93

  public/private property 92-93

Undermining footings 62, 190

Universal forces/principles

  center of gravity 13

  downhill force 10

  friction 12

  momentum 6

  motion 5

  pitch of slope 7

  traction 11-12

  understanding 4

  weight 5

Unlocked breaks, dangers 38

Utilities

  on public property 92-93

  planning around 107

  questions 101-105

  underground 89-100

V                                                                    Top of Page

Valves, opening/closing 42-43

Variable forces 4-5

Vertical line (center of gravity) 16

Vertical slopes 9

Very close to level 8

Vibrations, affect on shoring 62

Vibrator, compaction 175

W                                                                    Top of Page

Warm-up, engine 79

Water dipping 47

  locating utilities 95

Water removal, soil compaction 171

Wear, checking for 77

Weather conditions, shoring requirements 62

Weight

  defined 5

  distribution 160

  distribution, TLB 2-5

working 4, 5

Weight distribution 13

  accident prevention 60

Weight of materials, affect on center of gravity 20

Weight transfer and center of gravity 16

Weight, using to grade 166

Wheels off ground, front 39

Width, TLB 2

Work area, preparing 145-146

Work motion cycle 6

Worker safety, general rules 55-56

Working range

  backhoe 258

  dipperstick 184-186

  detecting utilities 96

Working weight, TLB 4, 5

XYZ                                                                    Top of Page

Zone, tolerance 91

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